A. Roger Ekirch. At Day's Close: Night in Times Past . New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2005. xxxii + 447 pp. ISBN 0-393-05089-0. $25.95 (hardcover). ISBN 0- 393-32901-1. $16.95 (softcover).
At Day's Close explores "the history of nighttime in Western society before the advent of the Industrial Revolution." It is a highly original account of a topic on which little formal study has been done. The physical territory taken on by the author is impressive, embracing most of western Europe, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean Sea. At Day's Close delves most deeply into the study of nighttime in the British Isles while also incorporating materials from early North America and eastern Europe. The timeframe is equally expansive, ranging from the later Middle Ages to the early nineteenth century, but focusing most closely on the period from 1500 to 1750. Each of the book's twelve chapters is, in its way, a nocturnal journey into the mystery of darkness, how human beings regarded it, and how they functioned within its confines.
As A. Roger Ekirch observes at the outset, night has always held terrors for humankind, beginning with our earliest ancestors who could not be certain that the hours of blindness, when a veil was cast over the very real dangers of the natural world, would be dispelled by the rising sun. Symbolic of the unknown, night preyed on the imagination. From earliest recorded time, these fears have found expression in our literature, often in fantastic fashion. The author liberally quotes from these rich sources. For the Greeks, nighttime was the domain of demons. Biblical writers frequently distinguished between darkness that deceived, and light, which brought forth clarity and truth, the preeminent expression of which is found in the Gospel of John the Apostle, in which Jesus declares: "I am the light of the world." For the superstitious, night was the province of ghosts, werewolves, goblins, and witches, creatures that took on convincing form in folklore. Evil men also were abroad during the sunless hours. Both the religious and the secular spheres protected the community by regulating human behavior in the hours after sundown through curfews, patrolling watchmen, and sentinels in church watchtowers.
… night has always
held terrors for
The use of fire as a wedge against the darkness brought some comfort, as did outside lanterns, and indoor candles, oil lamps, and slivers of burning candlewood. Thieves and burglars were discouraged, while domestic life thrived after sunset, when darkness for many persons meant a surcease from labor and families gathered around open hearths and chimney fireplaces. For many, this was a time, too, for solitude and prayer. Individuals ventured out, of course, on one errand or another, navigating the hazardous and blackened landscape to visit neighbors or conduct business. Later, in the eighteenth century, urban areas began in small ways to make public spaces accessible after nightfall. Gradually night became a time of liberation, when the social constraints governing daytime behavior yielded to more adventurous pursuits.
With artificial light came the opportunity to rest and enjoy social pastimes such as playing cards, eating, drinking, and, for some, reading and enjoying music. Diarists frequently recorded such activities, staying up until after midnight in the privacy of their homes or at inns and taverns. Lower orders gathered at the public alehouse. Members of the aristocracy had the resources to indulge in lavish nighttime pursuits such as balls, operas, concerts, and masquerades with little regard for the inconveniences that nighttime customarily imposed on other folk.
Night also provided a seductive curtain behind which passion bloomed in the darkness like a nocturnal flower. Maidens and gallants rendezvoused in country lanes and lay together in churchyards and cemeteries. Aristocrats and wealthy men of business mingled in the streets with tradesmen, pursuing prostitutes down London streets. To a surprising degree, the wives of prominent men were able to escape the constraints imposed on them and seek similar entertainments, venturing forth in search of illicit affairs. Clergymen, too, succumbed to the temptations of dissolute nightlife, and youths, their ardor mixed with intoxicants, joined in jealous, and sometimes fatal, frays.
Gas lighting in the nineteenth century invested nighttime streets with the safety formerly reserved for daytime and dramatically extended daylight activities late into night. As labor and recreation extended into the later hours, the privacy and quiet traditionally found during darkness diminished. With greater activity came increased crime and greater police presence. The social oversight common during daylight hours began to rule nighttime hours as well. With the advent of electric lighting, night has gradually yielded much of its domain, eclipsed by the glare of artificial illumination.
Of particular interest is Ekirch's examination of preindustrial society's segmented sleep patterns, when it was commonplace for persons to sleep for several hours and then rise in the dark to visit neighbors, smoke, indulge in lovemaking, or write in their diaries or journals for an hour or so before returning to bed to finish their sleep. He speculates on how the natural rhythms of sleep have been altered and raises the disquieting specter of a time when night has, for all intents and purposes, been eliminated. The potential consequences, not only for humankind, but also for the natural world, and especially for that nocturnal world that flourishes in the darkness, are sobering.
A finalist in the nonfiction category of the annual Library of Virginia Literary Awards scheduled for October 2006, this fascinating and beautifully written narrative should find a special place on the Virginia bookshelf.
— reviewed by Donald W. Gunter, Assistant Editor , Dictionary of Virginia Biography
Aleck Loker. Walter Ralegh's Virginia: Roanoke Island and the Lost Colony . Williamsburg, Va.: Solitude Press, 2006. iv + 165 pp. ISBN 1- 928874-08-8. $16.95. (softcover).
During the first half of the sixteenth century, seafaring representatives of Portugal, Spain, and France vied for geopolitical superiority by establishing outposts in the Americas. As explorers claimed territory for their monarchs, advanced their religious interests, and extracted valuable commodities, conflict frequently erupted. Piracy flourished on the seas. It is in this context, Aleck Loker contends, that England's first, unsuccessful attempts at "New World" colonization must be understood.
… the most logical
explanation, he asserts,
is that they moved
to territory occupied
by the Croatoas …
England's earliest efforts at settlement focused on present-day Canada, where John Cabot and Martin Frobisher had searched in vain for a Northwest Passage. In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, armed with a patent from Queen Elizabeth, arrived in Newfoundland with more than two hundred men and laid claim to the area, despite the presence of thirty-six fishing vessels from other European nations. This attempt at settlement failed almost immediately, but it inspired Sir Walter Ralegh — Gilbert's half-brother and a regular at the queen's court — to pursue the endeavor elsewhere in North America.
Ralegh planned his expedition amid a rapidly shifting political landscape. A Spanish rise to dominance, fueled by treasure the Catholic nation routinely shipped home from the West Indies, coincided with the aftermath of the Reformation and destabilized international relations in western Europe. England, without a large navy, employed private ships and seamen to conduct its foreign policy, which often amounted to a system of legalized piracy in which Englishmen robbed Spanish vessels of their riches. These raids were quite lucrative for ship owners, captains, and crew members, as the crown took only twenty percent of the yield. Mariners therefore found privateering expeditions more rewarding than the prospect of shuttling settlers and supplies to North America; this enticement, coupled with the growing threat of the Spanish Armada, meant that colonization was not a priority as Ralegh sought to fulfill the patent he received in 1584.
After hearing positive reports about Roanoke Island from a reconnaissance party, Ralegh dispatched five ships to the coast of present-day North Carolina in 1585. The colony's roughly one hundred men, under the leadership of governor Ralph Lane, were to secure the area, conduct agricultural experiments, explore the region, and gather marketable goods. Early clashes with nearby tribes of Native Americans created ongoing tension, and distractions in Europe prevented the arrival of supply ships and additional colonists. About a year after their arrival, the Englishmen abandoned the settlement. Not to be denied, Ralegh recruited another group of settlers in hopes of establishing a new outpost, this time on the Chesapeake Bay. Led by the weak-willed John White, this group — which included women and children — found itself at the mercy of a domineering ship's captain whose preoccupation with privateering led him to drop them off in the summer of 1587 at Roanoke rather than at their intended destination.
Because the 115 colonists were not where they were supposed to be, White returned to England to report their location. War with Spain, and an unfortunate encounter with French pirates, kept White in England for more than two years. His 1590 expedition encountered an abandoned Roanoke Island. The only clue to the settlers' fate was the name of a local Indian tribe, Croatoan, carved into a post, unaccompanied by the agreed-on symbol for distress. Foul weather, along with yet another impatient ship's captain, cut short the search for further evidence. Loker lists several theories about the cause of the settlers' disappearance — Spanish raiders captured them; Indians killed them; illness or natural disaster struck — but the most logical explanation, he asserts, is that they moved to territory occupied by the Croatoans and eventually blended with various local tribes.
Loker, now retired after a career with the United States Navy, has provided a broad overview of Ralegh's efforts to establish a colony in Roanoke. Based on primary sources and on previous scholarship, the work is a useful synthesis that offers little in the way of reinterpretation. Serious students of the era will be familiar with the story presented here, but Walter Ralegh's Virginia is a solid introduction to the topic for the general reader. Though the book contains a list of endnotes, the absence of numbered notation within the text makes consulting them a cumbersome process.
— reviewed by Jennifer R. Loux, Research Associate, Dictionary of Virginia Biography
Peter R. Henriques. Realistic Visionary: A Portrait of George Washington . Charlottesville and London: University of Virginia Press, 2006. xv + 256 pp. ISBN 0-8139-2547-9. $26.95 (hardcover).
The ten interrelated essays in this volume provide one of the best and one of the most sensitively informed discussions of important aspects of George Washington's character and personality. The essays treat Washington's evolution into a successful military and political leader, his relationships with his wife and family, his relationships with Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton, and his attitudes and beliefs about religion and slavery.
a persuasive case
that Washington was
not a man of deep
The author is a retired professor of history at George Mason University and has studied Washington for many years. Not a traditional biography, his volume focuses sharply on essential features of Washington's mind and character that made him into the man that he became. The author draws on a large body of scholarly analysis of Washington's life and career, but he bases his own particularly wellinformed analysis on a close reading of Washington's own writings and on what his contemporaries said about him and how he interacted with them.
Washington had a limited formal education, but he had a formidable mind and was very well-read and informed about military and political affairs. He had a passion for order and system and efficiency, and he was a man of honor and integrity and of ambition for honorable fame. He was the sum of those parts, and he put all of them into everything that he did, including being head of a family, general of an army, manager of a plantation, master of slaves, and president of the United States. Washington was a man of almost mythic status even during his lifetime, but he was not the man of the myths that later writers constructed.
Those who engage in hero worship may find themselves uncomfortable with Peter R. Henriques's discussion of Washington's ownership of slaves and of his slow and possibly incomplete conversion to antislavery views. In what will probably prove a controversial chapter on Washington's religious beliefs, Henriques makes a persuasive case that Washington was not a man of deep religious faith or even a devout Christian, as those terms are generally understood these days.
Washington was a man of his times, and he should be understood as a man of the Enlightenment, not as a twentieth- or twenty-firstcentury man or a man who stood outside of time and historical change. Henriques's Realistic Visionary succeeds in portraying and evaluating Washington in precisely the right context.
— reviewed by Brent Tarter, Editor , Dictionary of Virginia Biography
Patricia Brady. Martha Washington: An American Life . New York: Penguin Group, 2005. 276 pp. ISBN- 13: 978-0-670-03430-4. $24.95 (hardcover). ISBN-13: 978-0-143- 03713-2. $15.00 (softcover).
Martha Dandridge Custis Washington is immediately familiar to most readers as the wife of George Washington, but people rarely imagine her beyond her role as the aged original First Lady. Martha's own destruction of her correspondence is the foremost reason behind the obscurity of her private life. Using published editions of Martha's surviving correspondence as well as mentions of her in other people's mail, newspapers, and a variety of other primary sources, Patricia Brady describes Martha as an intelligent, strong woman with a panache for sparkling conversation. Martha Washington: An American Life places this dynamic woman in the society of Revolutionary America.
Martha Dandridge was the first child of many born in a middlingto-wealthy colonial family. She helped her mother with the younger children and other household duties; studied basic reading, writing, and arithmetic; and learned social deportment. At seventeen, Martha caught the eye of Daniel Parke Custis, a man of the highest class of the colonial elite. Daniel's father opposed the match, loudly and in public. In a private meeting, however, teenaged Martha was able to change the mind of the seventy- year-old John Custis.
Martha was happy in her marriage to Daniel, a man twenty years her senior, and they quickly settled into a fashionable lifestyle. Their happiness was marred by the deaths of their first two children, but the youngest two outlived their father. As a widow, Martha took up the management of her husband's estate instead of turning it over to a male family member. With the considerable fortune she controlled, Martha had much freedom in her choice of a new husband, including whether to have one at all. Therefore, she was free to marry George Washington for love.
… teenaged Martha
was able to change the
mind of the seventy-
year-old John Custis.
From the beginning of their marriage, the Washingtons led a very busy life, which Brady chronicles in an engaging narrative: their love for Mount Vernon, the plantation they would always call home; the births and deaths as well as comings and goings of many family members crossing four generations; the moves of the family to be with George during the winter encampments of the Revolutionary War; and the eight long years of his presidency in New York and Philadelphia, when both dreamed of their retirement to Mount Vernon. Brady emphasizes the love between the couple and repeats how they detested being apart. She discusses their disappointment in not having children of their own and their informal adoption of two of Martha's grandchildren.
Brady depicts the president as a family man and shows how he struggled, with Martha's help, to balance governmental, public, and private duties. Included is Martha's sadder, more private existence as the president's widow. The book closes with a chapter that reiterates the facts of Martha's life while exploring some of her ideologies, including her beliefs on slavery. Martha Washington: An American Life is an excellent choice for any reader interested in the Washingtons or the lives of the upper class at the end of the colonial period.
— reviewed by Maria Kimberly, Project Editor
Jean B. Lee, ed. Experiencing Mount Vernon: Eyewitness Accounts, 1784&Ndash;1865 . Charlottesville and London: University of Virginia Press, 2006. xvii + 227 pp. ISBN 0-8139- 2514-2. $45.00 (hardcover). ISBN 0-8139-2525-0. $19.95 (softcover).
Even before the death of George Washington, his Mount Vernon became a place of pilgrimage. While the general was alive, visitors came to meet the great man; after his death, they came to visit his grave, walk through the house and grounds, and recall Washington's many significant contributions to the founding of the nation. In 1860, the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union purchased the house and grounds from members of the Washington family to preserve the site for future generations of visitors. It was the first such historic preservation project in the country.
These forty or more excerpts from visitors' accounts plus a few documents composed by residents at Mount Vernon present the variety of reactions that the visitors experienced. All venerated Washington for his military and political achievements, and many commented on his exemplary family life, but some also expressed admiration for his mansion house and his plantation management. As the nineteenth century progressed, a larger number of visitors commented on the presence of slavery at the founding father's home, reflecting the increasingly sensitive role of the South's peculiar institution in national sensibilities and politics. The editor has selected excerpts that cover more than eighty years and come from famous men and women and from ordinary citizens. She judiciously introduces each one but without more commentary than is necessary to allow the visitors to speak for themselves.
— reviewed by Brent Tarter, Editor , Dictionary of Virginia Biography
Richard Labunski. James Madison and the Struggle for the Bill of Rights . Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. xii + 336 pp. ISBN 0-19-518105-0; ISBN-13: 978-0-19-518105-0. $28.00 (hardcover).
The story of James Madison as Father of the Constitution is an oft-told tale and has been recounted ad nauseam in period histories and "Little Jemmy" biographies. A reader must wonder if an original work could spring from this wellworn ground. To his credit, Richard Labunski has written a book with a fresh angle, James Madison and the Struggle for the Bill of Rights . Other works mention the passage of the Bill of Rights within the larger context of ratifying the Constitution and forming the federal government. Labunski focuses on the Bill of Rights itself.
Labunski recounts how Madison originally opposed a proposal made at the 1787 constitutional convention that would have included a bill of rights as part of the country's new governing document. Even after some delegates refused to sign the Constitution without a bill of rights, Madison contended that such amendments were unnecessary. During the ensuing state ratification debates, critics decried the lack of protection of rights in the Constitution, but Madison actively rallied supporters to push for passage of the document as it stood. His struggles to secure passage culminated in Virginia's ratification convention, where the soft-spoken political theorist barely achieved his native state's acceptance of the Constitution over the formidable opposition of Patrick Henry.
… the soft-spoken
barely achieved his
native state's acceptance
of the Constitution …
Madison learned how fierce Henry's opposition remained when the latter thwarted Madison's election to the United States Senate and then oversaw the establishment of Virginia's congressional districts and placed Madison in a tough one. Madison overcame his strong dislike of active campaigning and defeated his good friend James Monroe to serve in the first session of the United States House of Representatives.
The events of the state ratification convention and his race for Congress convinced Madison that amending the Constitution with a bill of rights was necessary. In Congress, he introduced such a bill, only to discover opposition from Anti-Federalists who hoped for a second convention to radically alter the Constitution, and also from his supposed allies, Federalist congressmen who contended that there was more important work to be done in establishing the new federal government. Madison skillfully negotiated, brokered, and compromised to achieve the necessary two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress to pass the proposed amendments to the states for their consideration.
Another potential showdown loomed in Virginia, where Patrick Henry waited in the General Assembly. Henry and his supporters, including Virginia's two senators, did not think that the proposed amendments went far enough in protecting rights. The political landscape was shifting in Virginia, however. Political maneuvering between the opposing sides prolonged the debate over the new amendments until 1791, when the Virginia legislature finally accepted them. With Virginia's approval, the first ten amendments — the Bill of Rights — were added to the United States Constitution.
James Madison and the Struggle for the Bill of Rights chronicles Madison's epic fight not only for the Constitution, but also for the Bill of Rights, which Americans now consider the essential statement of their liberties. In the face of stout resistance both at the state and the national levels, Madison consistently labored for a more perfect Union. In Labunski's volume, the diminutive Madison emerges as a giant.
— reviewed by Trenton E. Hizer, Senior Finding Aids Archivist
Tom Lee. The Tennessee- Virginia Tri-Cities: Urbanization in Appalachia, 1900&Ndash; 1950 . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2005. xvi + 342 pp. ISBN 1-57233-334-0. $42.00 (hardcover).
Anchored by Johnson City, Kingsport, and Bristol, Tennessee, and Bristol, Virginia, the Appalachian valley region of northeastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia supports a population of more than half a million people. Such an urbanized, not to mention industrialized, reality confounds southern Appalachian stereotypes of rural hollers and small coal-company towns. Tom Lee's careful analysis of the emergence of this urban realm highlights the canny town leaders and impersonal structural forces that opened the region up to business and transformed it from a predominantly agricultural to an industrial economy.
Town growth and economic diversification followed a pattern shared by much of the South. As in other areas, the construction of railroads linked the region to new markets, fueling economic growth and emboldening town elites to exercise greater control over their hinterlands. Appalachia, of course, had much sought-after natural resources, and initially railroads stimulated largely extractive endeavors. Towns such as Bristol and Johnson City took advantage of their prominence along rail-lines and became key transportation and processing centers. As the growth potential of extractive industries began to wither, however, business leaders worked to attract manufacturers. Low-wage workers became their chief selling point. Instead of extracting coal and timber from the highland areas, town elites now extracted workers, who, finding semi-subsistence agriculture increasingly nonviable, welcomed the opportunity and excitement found in the city. Northern and European industrialists also liked what they saw. Textile and chemical plants soon dominated the area's economy.
Yet, as Lee documents, the reliance on low-wage, low-skill manufacturing locked the Tri-Cities into a persistent game of catch-up. Lacking sufficient capital for the creation of value-added, less labor- intensive enterprises, the urban elite continued to attract certain kinds of factories but could not prepare the area for the challenges associated with post-industrialization. The elite's neglect of rural areas (other than as a source of low-wage workers), a neglect exacerbated by New Deal programs, heightened the region's economic imbalances and left it vulnerable to cyclical shocks. Business leaders, in short, chose an understandable path to industrial development, but one that was bound to bring diminishing returns.
… the reliance on
the Tri-Cities into a
Lee's economic history of the Tri-Cities balances the impressive accomplishments of the region's movers and shakers with a sobering analysis of the inadequacies of an economic philosophy that privileges low wages. It should become the standard account of urban development in southern Appalachia.
— reviewed by William Bland Whitley, Editorial Research Fellow , Dictionary of Virginia Biography
Eleanor Vernon Wilson. The Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia, 1905&Ndash;2005: Preparing Men and Women for Leadership in Scientific Educational Work . Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, distributed for the Curry School of Education Foundation, 2006. viii + 150 pp. ISBN 0- 9776312-0-6. $29.95 (hardcover).
Soon after Edwin Anderson Alderman was inaugurated as the first president of the University of Virginia in 1905, he sought to establish a school of education. With a $100,000 donation from philanthropist John D. Rockefeller Sr., the Curry Memorial School of Education was founded to train teachers and administrators, support and conduct education research, and work with educational institutions statewide. Eleanor Vernon Wilson, an associate professor and alumna, traces the development of the Curry School of Education as it has fulfilled these goals through the twentieth century.
Named for southern educational reformer Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry, the school had its roots in the university's nineteenth- century summer teacher programs, which had been organized after the establishment of a state public school system required better teacher training. During the Curry School's first year, two professors taught courses such as History of Education and Principles of Education to seven undergraduates and four graduate students. A $40,000 donation from the Peabody Education Fund helped finance the construction of a building, and in 1914 Peabody Hall was completed.
In 1920 the program became a degree-granting department within the university. John L. Manahan was appointed the first dean of the renamed Curry Memorial Department of Education. During his twenty-nine-year tenure, he put the school on firm ground as enrollment increased and the curriculum was augmented. Manahan also established working relationships with school superintendents and the state board of education, fostered teacher training based on scientific methods, worked to improve access for women in graduate programs, and expanded the department's Bureau of Appointments, which assisted students in securing teaching positions.
Through chronological chapters, Wilson describes how each of Manahan's successors has contributed to the Curry School's growth. Lindley J. Stiles (1949&Ndash;1955) developed the first graduate degree programs and supervised the organization of the Bureau of Educational Research, designed to conduct and promote educational research. Ralph W. Cherry (1956&Ndash;1968) directed the introduction of a special education program and accreditation by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, as well as assisted in school integration throughout the state. Frederick R. Cyphert (1968&Ndash;1974) tripled the size of the faculty, and Richard M. Brandt (1974&Ndash;1984) helped create the Curry School Foundation. During the term of James M. Cooper (1984&Ndash;1994), students could begin earning a bachelor's degree and a master's degree in teaching in five years (now the standard preparatory degree for educators). Since 1995, David W. Breneman has maintained the growth of the Curry School, which has become predominantly a graduate-degree institution with an enrollment of more than 1,200 students.
Wilson contextualizes the evolution of the school with larger state and national issues such as teacher training methods, racial integration of public educational institutions, and the full entrance of women into academia. The author also illustrates how the Curry School of Education begins its next hundred years still striving to prepare educators, conduct and promote research, and support educational institutions and organizations across the commonwealth.
— reviewed by John G. Deal, Assistant Editor , Dictionary of Virginia Biography
Genealogists and those studying local history eagerly look forward to the appearance of additional volumes in Wesley E. Pippenger's Index to Virginia Estates, 1800&Ndash;1865 . This series, begun in 2001, attempts the monumental task of indexing all items recorded in city or county will books during the first two-thirds of the nineteenth century. Volume 6 (Richmond: Virginia Genealogical Society, 2005. xxiii + 572 pp. ISBN 1-888192-35-6. $40.00) covers the counties of Augusta and Rockingham and the city of Staunton. Volume 7 (Richmond: Virginia Genealogical Society, 2006. xxix + 674 pp. ISBN 1-888192-36-4. $40.00) covers Amelia, Brunswick, Cumberland, Goochland, Lunenburg, Mecklenburg, Nottoway, Powhatan, and Prince Edward Counties. Organized alphabetically, each one-line entry includes the personal name, city or county, type of account (will, inventory, sale, trust account, license, guardian or executor's bond, power of attorney), year, and source citation.
The Virginia Genealogical Society also continues the valuable series Cavaliers and Pioneers: Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants with the publication of Volume 8 , covering the years 1779&Ndash;1782 and edited by Dennis Ray Hudgins (Richmond: Virginia Genealogical Society, 2005. xxxii + 412 pp. ISBN 1-888192-14-3. $30.00). This volume abstracts Grant Books A through F and includes an introduction that reprints the legislation enacting the Land Office. Three more volumes are projected to complete the abstracting through June 1786.
History enthusiasts who prefer to make their road trips with guidebooks in hand will enjoy Randell Jones's In the Footsteps of Daniel Boone (Winston- Salem, N.C.: John F. Blair, Publisher, 2005. xxviii + 244 pp. ISBN 0-89587-308-7. $14.95 [softcover]). The author provides an entertaining guide to eighty-five sites associated with the famous explorer and his family in Florida, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. Jones offers detailed driving instructions for getting to the sites, but the three sketchy statelevel maps are inadequate for helping travelers find their way.
— bookend notes prepared by Sara B. Bearss________________________________
Sara B. Bearss is senior editor of the Dictionary of Virginia Biography , published by the Library of Virginia.